Apuntes sobre el ciclo genital femenino

A colación de la entrada «Tabúes de ayer y de hoy: la menstruación», una de teoría sobre la mujer para hoy, útil para todos.

CICLO GENITAL FEMENINO

Este ciclo prepara el cuerpo de la mujer para un embarazo que en caso de no ocurrir da paso a la menstruación. De manera estándar, para facilitar su explicación, dividimos el ciclo en 28 días, pero la duración depende de cada mujer, pudiendo durar entre 25-35 días.

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FASES DEL CICLO MENSTRUAL

*Los días en que sucede cada fase son aproximados y adaptados a la duración estándar del ciclo.

1) Menstruación: (días 1-4) En ella se desprenden dos tercios del endometrio uterino junto con el óvulo no fecundado.

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2) Fase proliferativa (folicular o preovulatoria): (días 4-14). Esta fase empieza en realidad con la menstruación y termina cuando tiene lugar ésta. La FSH estimula varios folículos ováricos de los que saldrá un folículo dominante maduro. En dicho folículo hay dos capas:

-Capa de la teca: su desarrollo depende de la LH y se encarga de producir andrógenos, que van a la granulosa.

-Capa de la granulosa: su desarrollo está influido por la FSH y los estrógenos. Contiene una enzima llamada «aromatasa» que convierte los andrógenos de la teca en estrógenos (estradiol), que crean un ambiente estrogénico favorable para que se desarrolle el folículo.

3) OVULACIÓN: (día 14) Momento en que de un folículo maduro sale el óvulo para ser expulsado del ovario hacia el útero.

4) Fase secretora (luteínica o postovulatoria): (días 14-28) Una vez expulsado el óvulo el folículo se colapsa y se convierte en cuerpo lúteo (o amarillo), que será el encargado de sintetizar la progesterona y es estimulado por la LH y por la HCG (hormona gonadotropina coriónica, que sólo se produce en caso de embarazo). Esta fase tiene una duración fija de entre 13 y 15 días y al final de ella ya comienza a elevarse de nuevo la FSH para elegir al siguiente folículo.

CICLOS UTERINO y de TEMPERATURA

En el endometrio se observan también las fases proliferativa, en el que crecen las glándulas por estímulo de los estrógenos, y secretora donde tiene lugar la maduración de dichas glándulas y el estroma endometrial.

La temperatura, está alrededor de los 36’5ºC en la fase proliferativa, siendo cercana a los 37ºC en la fase secretora.

*Es muy útil la gráfica que pongo a continuación para entender todo este lío:

Ciclo-sexual-femenino-hormonas-folículo-endometrio-temperatura

EJE HIPOTÁLAMO-HIPÓFISIS-OVARIO:

En el hipotálamo se produce la secreción pulsátil de GnRH (Homona liberadora de gonadotropinas) que estimula la hipófisis anterior (o adenohipófisis) para que produzca las gonadotropinas FSH (hormona folículo estimulante) y LH (hormona luteinizante) y a su vez éstas se dirigen al ovario para desempeñar las funciones antes comentadass en el ciclo menstrual.

La progesterona, secretada por el cuerpo lúteo, es un «pro-gestágeno» es decir tiene funciones destinadas a favorecer Http://encasafarmacia.com/ la gestación.

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Y así en resumen, «esto es todo amigos» 🙂 Si encontráis algún error o tenéis alguna duda u os interesa leer sobre algún tema concreto, no dudéis en comentar o mandar un mail.

¡Salud y suerte!

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